6. Органолептичні властивості

Сукупність властивостей продукту в результаті його оцінки органами відчуття людини є його органолептичною характеристикою.

Основними органолептичними показниками якості м’яса є смак, аромат, колір, консистенція. Органолептичні характеристики продукту впливають на органи відчуття людини, порушуючи секреторно-моторну діяльність травного апарату і апетит, що сприяє кращому його засвоєнню. Органолептична оцінка визначає купівельний попит і має вирішальне значення при встановленні якості продукції, особливо нових видів. Органолептичні показники якості м’яса і м’ясних продуктів передбачаються у всіх державних стандартах.

Органолептичні показники можуть бути обумовлені природою продукту, його хімічним складом, біохімічними процесами (дозрівання м’яса). Штучна зміна органолептичних властивостей можлива при технологічній обробці (подрібнення, тендеризація, посол, копчення, варка), використовуванні спецій, харчових і смакових добавок, а також під дією мікрофлори, ферментів.

Колір м’яса. Серед якісних показників м’яса, що багато в чому визначають його товарний вигляд, особливе місце відводиться кольору. Значення кольору при виборі м’ясного продукту обумовлено тим, що за ним покупець судить не тільки про якість, але і свіжість даного виробу. Колір м’яса визначається вмістом і фізико-хімічними змінами в м’язах гемоглобіну і міоглобіну, що відноситься до групи хромопротеїнів.

Хромопротеїни (від грец. chroma — «фарба») — складні білки, що містять крім білкового компоненту зв’язану з ним забарвлену простетичну групу.  Розрізняють гемопротеїни  (містять гем), магнійпорфірини і флавопротеїни (містять похідні ізоалоксазину). Хромопротеїни мають ряд унікальних біологічних функцій: вони беруть участь в таких фундаментальних процесах життєдіяльності, як фотосинтезклітинне дихання і транспорт кисню і диоксиду вуглецю у межах цілого організму, окисно-відновні реакції, сприйняття світла і кольору та інші.

Таким чином, хромопротеїни грають виключно важливу роль в процесах життєдіяльності. Наприклад, пригнічення дихальної функції гемоглобіну шляхом введення оксиду вуглецю (CO) або утилізації (споживання) кисню в тканинах шляхом введення синильної кислоти або її солей (ціанидів), що інгібують ферментні системи клітинного дихання, вмить призводить до смерті організму.

Хромопротеїни є неодмінними і активними учасниками акумуляції енергії, починаючи від фіксації сонячної енергії в зелених рослинах та багатьох мікроорганізмах, до її перетворень в організмі. Хлорофіл (магнійпорфірин) разом з білком забезпечує фотосинтетичну активність рослин, каталізує розщеплювання молекули води на водень і кисень (поглинанням сонячної енергії). Гемопротєїни (залізопорфірини), навпаки, каталізують зворотну реакцію — утворення молекули води, пов’язане із звільненням енергії.

Основну роль у формуванні кольору м’яса виконує міоглобін, оскільки для нормально знекровлених туш вміст гемоглобіну у м’язовій тканині невеликий. У зв’язку з різним фізіологічним навантаженням м’язів вміст міоглобіну різний не тільки у різних тварин, але і різних м’язів однієї тварини.

Міоглобін і гемоглобін – складні білки, що складаються з білкової частини – глобіну і небілкової – гема, до складу якого входить атом заліза і чотири гетероциклічних пірольних кільця, зв’язаних метиленовими містками. Він відповідає за формування різного відтінку кольору м’яса, оскільки здатний легко окислюватися і віддавати один електрон.

У результаті цього можуть утворюватися три форми міоглобіну. Міоглобін — кисень-зв’язуючий білок скелетних м’язів та м’язів серця хребетних тварин. Міоглобін скелетних м’язів і міоглобін міокарду (серцевого м’яза) дещо відрізняються за амінокислотною послідовністю. У практичній медицині цей факт використовується для визначення діагнозу інфаркта міокарду по появі специфічної «серцевої» форми міоглобіну (так само як і «серцевих» ізотипів деяких м’язових ферментів) в крові.

У присутності кисню повітря міоглобін окислюється і утворює оксиміоглобін, який надає м’ясу світло-червоний колір. Проте це з’єднання нестійке. Під впливом світла, повітря, часу витримки, нагріву відбувається глибше окислення. Залізо гема при цьому переходить з двовалентного в тривалентне і утворюється метміоглобін коричнево-сірого кольору. При взаємодії міоглобіну з сірководнем у присутності кисню утворюється сульфоміоглобін – пігмент зеленого кольору.

Співвідношення похідних міоглобіну, одночасно присутніх в м’ясі, і визначає колір м’яса. Відрізнити ці форми один від одного і зміряти їх вміст можна за спектрами поглинання міоглобіну. Зміна пігментації свіжого м’яса дозволяє судити про умови і терміни його зберігання. Наприклад, червоне забарвлення поверхні свіжого м’яса на глибині 4 см, в основному, обумовлено наявністю оксигемоглобіну. Глибші шари м’яса забарвлені в пурпурно-червоний колір міоглобіном. Під час подрібнення м’яса збільшується доступ кисню до пігментів, внаслідок чого оксиміоглобін і міоглобін поступово перетворюються в метміоглобін. Сіро-коричневе забарвлення утворюється, коли кількість метміоглобіну досягає 60 %.

На свіжому зрізі м’яса, що зберігалося на повітрі, на глибині 1-2 мм виявляється світло-червоний шар оксигемоглобіну, за ним слідує досить широка зона метміоглобіну, де існує оптимальний для його утворення тиск кисню, нижче переважає темно-червоний колір міоглобіну. При тривалому зберіганні в результаті окислення міоглобіну в метміоглобін м’ясо набуває коричневого відтінку. Швидкість утворення метміоглобіну знижується із зниженням температури, оскільки при низьких температурах кисень дифундує у м’ясо більш глибоко, ніж при високих. Іншими словами, м’ясо, що зберігалося при нижчій температурі, виявиться більш світло-червоним.

Процес відновлення метмеоглобіну можна підсилити додаванням відновників, з яких широко використовують аскорбінову кислоту і аскорбат натрію.

Приведені взаємоперетворювання форм міоглобіну можливі лише при збереженні нативної конформації його білкової частини – глобіну. При нагріванні до температури денатурації пігментів м’яса здатність міоглобіну зв’язувати кисень втрачається, м’ясо набуває сіро-коричневого забарвлення в результаті утворення гемохромогенів і гематинів.

У технологічній практиці для надання м’ясним продуктам природного кольору використовують властивість міоглобіну активно зв’язувати окис азоту в стійке з’єднання, яке не руйнується при високих температурах. Для цієї мети використовують нітрит натрію.

Харчові барвники. Основною причиною вживання харчових барвників у м’ясній промисловості є заміна м’ясної сировини незабарвленими інгредієнтами білкової і вуглеводної природи, і, як наслідок, зниження природного вмісту фарбувальних пігментів м’яса.

Колірна гамма барвників м’ясних продуктів обмежена червоною і червоно-оранжевою гамою.

Класифікація барвників. Залежно від способу отримання розрізняють дві групи барвників: натуральні і синтетичні.

Натуральні барвники – це фарбувальні речовини рослинного, тваринного або мікробіологічного походження, виділені фізичними способами. До них відносяться карміни, кошеніль, бетанін, каротини, маслосмоли паприки, червоний рис (ферментований рис).

Кармін (кармінова кислота) — барвник, що виготовляється з пігментів тіла самиць червця, з якого виготовляють яскраво-червону фарбу кармінового кольору. Кошеніль (Червець) — комаха  ряду рівнокрилих, яка живиться соками рослин, шкідник сільськогосподарських культур і плодових дерев. Каротин (лат. carota — морква) — C40H56, жиророзчинний помаранчево-жовтий пігмент з групи каротиноїдів, попередник вітаміну А. Синтезується рослинами, особливо багато його у листях при переході рослин до цвітіння. Багаті на каротин корені моркви (в деяких сортах 31 мг%). звідси його назва, крім того з них він був вперше виділений. Також багато каротину містять такі плоди, як шипшинаобліпихасмородинагоробинаПаприка, овочевий або солодкий перець (Capsicum annuum L.) — напівчагарникова рослина роду стручковий перець (Capsicum), родини пасльонових (Solanaceae), овочева культура. У дикому вигляді трапляється в тропічних районах Америки. Червоний рис — зазвичай назва всіх видів та різновидностей роду рис (Oryza), які проявляють деякі характерні риси культурного рису, та які ростуть вперемішку із культурим рисом. Популяції бур’янистого рису знайдені в багатьох областях вирощування рису у світі. Хоча бур’янистий рис належить до різних видів і підвидів, всі ці рослини поділяють здатність розповсюджувати своє насіння перед збором урожаю. Різновидності бур’янистого рису пристосувалися до широкого ряду природних умов. Зерна бур’янистого рису часто мають зафарбований червоним кольором перикарп, через це для нього в міжнародній літературі часто використовується термін червоний рис. Цей термін, проте, здається не дуже відповідним, оскільки зерна із червоним перикарпом також зустрічаються у деяких культурних сортів, але відсутні в багатьох бур’янистих формах.

Найширше вживання знайшли натуральні барвники рослинного походження. Сировиною для них є ягоди, квіти, листя, коренеплоди і тому подібні інгредієнти, зокрема у вигляді відходів переробки рослинної сировини на консервних і виноробних заводах. За хімічною природою ці речовини відносяться до флавоноїдів, каротиноїдів, хлорофілу або хіноновим з’єднанням. Рослинні фарбувальні речовини бувають жиро- і водорозчинними.

Флавоноїди — похідні фенольних сполук, жовті, коричневі пігменти рослин. Вони виявляють різноманітну фітотерапевтичну дію. Зустрічаються в багатьох рослинах у вигляді глікозидів, а також і в чистому вигляді. Найвідоміші у фітотерапії флавоноїди: рутин, гесперидин, гіперозид, кверцетин, кемпферол та апігенін. Каротиноїди — природні органічні пігменти, що виробляються бактеріямигрибамиводоростями і рослинами. Тепер ідентифіковано близько 600 каротиноїдів, що діляться на два класи: ксантофіли та каротини. Вони мають переважно  жовтийпомаранчевий або червоний колір, за своєю будовою це циклічні або ациклічні ізопреноїди.  Хлорофіл — зелений пігмент, присутній в клітинах рослин, деяких водоростей і ціанобактерій, що надає їм відповідного кольору. Назва походить від грец. chloros — «зелений» і phyllon — «листок». Зареєстрований як барвник під номером E140.
Хінони (від італ. china < ісп. quina < kina — кора) — циклічні карбонільні сполуки, у яких відсутній ароматичний характер, але їх легко отримують з ароматичних сполук або інших продуктів.

Синтетичні барвники одержують штучно в результаті хімічного синтезу. Вони мають деякі технологічні переваги, оскільки менш чутливі до умов переробки і зберігання, а також дають яскравіші кольори. До синтетичних фарбників відносяться азорубін (кармазін), Понсо 4R, Червоний та ін.

Кармазін, також азорубін (англ. azorubine, carmoisine) — синтетичний харчовий барвник, зареєстрований як харчовий додаток E122. Понсо 4R (англ. Ponceau 4R) — синтетичний барвник, зареєстровний як харчовий додаток E124. Червоний 2G (англ. Red 2G) — синтетичний червоний барвник, азосполука, зареєстровний як харчовий додаток E128. Розчинний у воді.

Характеристика основних видів барвників. Ферментований рис одержують ферментацією рису культурами цвілевих грибів. Цвіль утворює на рисі червоні і жовті пігменти. Барвник є порошком темно-червоного кольору, нейтрального смаку і запаху. Дози внесення ферментованого рису складають 0,03-0,3 %. Цей барвник у нашій країні офіційно дозволений і широко використовується у м’ясній промисловості, в основному завдяки своїй низькій вартості.

Проте в міжнародній практиці відношення до нього неоднозначне. Він не визнаний ФАО/ВОЗ як харчова добавка і не має індексу Е, головним чином через те, що містить токсичну речовину цитринін, що виробляється при ферментації рису культурами цвілевих грибів Monascus purpureus і Monascus ruber.

Таким чином, натуральне походження ферментованого рису і інших барвників не дає гарантії повної токсикологічної безпеки.

Карміни, кошеніль – барвники, що є органічними сполуками атрахинонового ряду темно-червоного кольору, одержаними з комах. Успішно використовуються для забарвлення сосисок і виробів шинок.

Бетанін одержують з бульб червоного буряка у вигляді рідини, порошку або пасти. Він має темно-червоний колір, проте може надавати м’ясному продукту неприродний колірний відтінок. Цей недолік можна компенсувати поєднанням з барвниками оранжевої гами.

Маслосмоли паприки – натуральний барвник із стручків паприки, що є темно-червоною рідиною з інтенсивним смаком і запахом паприки. Існують дві форми барвника: водо- і жиророзчинна.

Водорозчинна паприка застосовується при виробленні фаршевих м’ясних продуктів у вигляді 0,08-0,20 %-них водних розчинів, а також для фарбування ковбасних оболонок.

Жироррозчинна паприка застосовується при виробництві паштетів, копченостей і ковбас.

Азорубін, кармуазін – синтетичний барвник, що є кристалами червоного кольору, добре розчинні у воді. Колір розчину азорубіна залежить від якості води і змінюється від голубувато-червоного до червоного, або до жовто-червоного. Барвник володіє високою світлостійкістю і термостійкістю (до 150 °С), хорошою кислотостійкістю і помірною стійкістю до лугів. Даний барвник економічний і стійкий до різних чинників, але має істотний недолік – при варці м’ясних продуктів він переходить у воду.

Кармуазін дозволений для вживання у м’ясній промисловості тільки для виробництва аналогів м’ясних продуктів. Понсо 4R – синтетичний азобарвник у вигляді червоного порошку або гранулята, добре розчинного у воді (до 300 г/л) і нерозчинного в рослинних оліях. Барвник стійкий до дії світла, температури (до 150 °С), стабільний до кислого середовища, стійкий до лугів, але може давати коричневий відтінок. Дозування, що рекомендується, – 0,001- 0,005 % до маси продукту. У м’ясній промисловості Понсо 4R дозволений для виробництва копчених ковбас.

Червоний – моноазобарвник, червоний порошок або гранулят, який добре розчинний у воді, не розчинний в жирах. Дуже стійкий до дії світла, температури (до 205 °С), а також до рН середовища.

Дозволений до використовування тільки при виробництві певних сортів ковбас у кількості до 20 мг/кг.

Необхідно відзначити, що всі харчові барвники, які сьогодні використовуються у м’ясній промисловості, мають деякі недоліки.

По-перше, багато препаратів натурального походження нестійкі до дії існуючих параметрів технологічної обробки (температури, рН , кисню, світла та ін. ) і при зберіганні м’ясних продуктів.

По-друге, синтетичні, а також деякі натуральні барвники викликають істотні турботи за категоріями їх безпеки.

По-третє, всі вживані барвники червоної гами дають фарбування м’ясних продуктів, відмінне від природного забарвлення, яке отримують в результаті реакції нітриту натрію і міоглобіну м’яса.

Таким чином, сьогодні пошук і розробка нових препаратів харчових барвників для м’ясної промисловості залишається актуальною темою.

Смак і аромат. Смак і аромат м’яса визначається комплексом більше 250 компонентів, які містяться в украй невеликих кількостях.

У летючій фракції м’яса присутні органічні кислоти, спирти, складні і прості ефіри, аміни і інші азотисті луги, альдегіди, кетон, феноли, сірковмісні, аліфатичні і гетероциклічні з’єднання і ін.

Проте основоположну роль у формуванні смакоароматичного «букету» м’яса виконує невелика група речовин, які являються ключовими

Ароматичні речовини високоспецифічні, навіть незначні зміни в їх співвідношенні або будові приводять до істотних кількісних і якісних змін аромату. Речовини, які обумовлюють смак і аромат м’яса, мають низькомолекулярну природу і є екстрактними. Вони нестійкі і різко міняють свої властивості при тепловій обробці. При оцінці смаку м’яса, як і інших харчових продуктів, розрізняють чотири основні смаки: солоний, солодкий, кислий і гіркий. Вони створюються у м’ясі певними речовинами: кислий – в основному молочною, фосфорною і піровиноградною кислотами; солоний – солями цих же кислот і хлоридами; гіркий – креатином, деякими вільними амінокислотами і азотними екстрактивними речовинами; солодкий – глюкозою, рібозою і тріозами. Існує ще і п’ятий смак, так званий Umami, який означає м’ясний, пряний і чудовий смак. Рецептори смаку Umami були розпізнані лише недавно. Це присмак білку, який мають солі амінокислот (глютамати) і інші. Смакові з’єднання Umami переважають у м’ясних продуктах.

Свіже м’ясо має незначний специфічний аромат і злегка солодкуватий, слабосолоний смак. М’ясо різних видів тварин і птахів, окрім смаку, специфічного для даного виду, володіє певним присмаком, залежним від корму. Аромат м’яса дорослих тварин сильніший, ніж молодняка тієї ж породи. Деякі відмінності є у ароматі м’яса зрілих тварин різної статі.

У формуванні специфічного аромату і смаку вареного м’яса вирішальну роль грають екстрактні речовини. Вони утворюються в процесі дозрівання в результаті автолітичних перетворень білків, ліпідів, вуглеводів і інших складових частин м’яса.

Оскільки екстрактні речовини формують основний смак м’яса лише при тепловій обробці, вони не є носіями, а потенційними «попередниками» аромату і смаку м’яса.

Парне м’ясо і м’ясо у стадії посмертного заклякнення має слабо виражений смак і аромат. Пояснюється це тим, що на цих етапах автоліза ще не накопичилося достатньої кількості речовин, що беруть участь в утворенні смаку і аромату м’яса при його кулінарній обробці. Аромат і смак стають відчутними через 2-4 доби після забою при низьких позитивних температурах, добре вираженими – через 5 діб, а найбільшої інтенсивності досягають через 10-14 діб.

Попередниками смаку і аромату є амінокислоти і їх аміди (серин, аспарагінова і глутамінова кислоти, глутамін, гліцин і ін.), які нагромаджуються в процесі автоліза при розпаді білків і природних пептидів, таких як глутатіон, карнозін, ансерін. Глутамінова кислота і її натрієва сіль навіть у незначній кількості (порядка 0,03 %) надає продукту м’ясний смак. Глутамінова кислота (α-аміноглутарова кислота; Glu, E) — аліфатична α-амінокислота. Зустрічається у всіх організмах у вільному вигляді (в плазмі крові разом з глутаміном становить близько 1/3 всіх вільних амінокислот) та у складі білків. Була вперше виявлена у глютені пшениці, через що і отримала свою назву. In vivo глутамінова кислота синтезується із α-оксоглутарової кислоти – проміжного продукту циклу Кребса. Глутамінова кислота (харчова добавка E620) та її солі (глутамат натрію Е621глутамат калію Е622диглутамат кальцію Е623глутамат амонію Е624глутамат магнію Е625) використовуються як підсилювачі смаку в багатьох харчових концентратах і консервах.

Потенційним попередником летючих речовин м’яса є тіамін, якому згідно даних останніх досліджень відводиться роль ключового компоненту запаху термообробленого м’яса. При термічному розкладанні тіаміну утворюється ряд з’єднань, які потім перетворюються на похідні фурана, тіофена, тріазола і сірководеньТіамін (від грец. θειον — сіркавітамін B1аневрин) — водорозчинний вітамін. У природі синтезується рослинами і деякими мікроорганізмами  (найбільше його міститься в дріжджах, хлібних злаках, картоплі). В організм людини і більшості тварин тіамін надходить з їжею. Його недостача в раціоні спричинює гіповітаміноз, а відсутність його призводить до розвитку хвороби бері-бері, що характеризується ураженням периферичних нервівсерцево-судинноїтравної та м’язової систем. Фізіологічне значення тіаміну зумовлюється його участю в процесах обміну речовин. У формі етеру — тіамінпірофосфату (ТПФ, кокарбоксилази) виконує функцію коферменту в процесах декарбоксилювання α-кетокислот, пентозофосфатного циклу; при нестачі тіаміну гальмуються деякі реакції трикарбонових кислот циклу Кребса. Він необхідний для утворення ацетилхоліну — агента, який передає нервові імпульси. Потреба тіаміну для дорослої людини становить 2—3 мг на добу і збільшується взимку, при вживанні великої кількості вуглеводів, а також ця потреба значно збільшується у разі хронічних інфекційних хвороб, хірургічних втручань, опікової недуги, цукрового діабету, при тривалому лікуванні антибіотиками та сульфаніламідними препаратами. У медицині одержані синтетично препарати тіаміну застосовують для запобігання гіповітамінозу та лікування невритіврадикулітівневралгій, периферичних паралічіввиразкової хвороби шлунка і дванадцятипалої кишкиатонії кишечника. На тіаміни багаті крупи, борошно грубого помелу, бобові, свинина. Він руйнується в лужному середовищі: при додаванні до тіста соди, надто швидкому варінні квасолі та гороху тощо.

Оскільки автолітичні зміни м’язової тканини тісно пов’язані з розпадом вуглеводної, жирової і нуклеотидної систем м’яса, то паралельно накопиченню продуктів гідролізу білків збільшується вміст вільних моносахаридів, які, як відомо, володіють смаком. В результаті розпаду глікогену утворюється глюкоза. Галактоза з’являється в результаті розпаду ліпідної системи з цереброзидів. Пентози є одним з кінцевих продуктів розпаду клітинних нуклєїнових кислот. Нуклеотиди і продукти їх розпаду беруть активну участь в утворенні смаку і аромату м’яса. Відомими компонентами фракцій нелетких водорозчинних з’єднань, що володіють м’ясним смаком, є інозинова і гуанозинова кислоти, інозин і гіпоксантин.

Важливе значення у формуванні аромату і смаку мають вільні жирні кислоти (оцетова, пропіонова, масляна, капронова). Вони не тільки самі безпосередньо беруть участь у формуванні аромату, але, мабуть, підвищують поріг чутливості інших речовин. Переважний вплив на аромат роблять низькомолекулярні продукти перетворення ліпідів – альдегіди, кетони.

Альдегіди утворюються також з амінокислот при їх окислювальному декарбоксилюванні і дезамінуванні при нагріванні. Наприклад, з метіоніна утворюється альдегід метіональ, що володіє м’ясним запахом, з треоніна – α-кетомасляна кислота, що володіє сильним запахом бульйону.

Істотний внесок надають також летючі карбонильні з’єднання, які утворюються у ході ферментативних, бактерійних, окислювальних процесів і термічної дії на м’ясо.

До речовин, що беруть участь у формуванні смакоароматичних властивостей м’яса, відносять летючі луги, зокрема метил і диметиламіни, а також сірковмісні з’єднання. Серед них необхідно наголосити на сірководні, меркаптані. Можливим джерелом утворення сульфідів є сірковмісні амінокислоти, зокрема цистин, цистеїн, метионін, а також пептид глютатіон.

Група важливих ароматичних речовин утворюється в результаті реакцій меланоїдиноутворення, початковим етапом яких є взаємодія амінокислот з редукуючими цукрами: фурфуролом, діацетілом, формальдегідом.

У процесі автоліза нагромаджуються органічні кислоти (молочна, піровиноградна, оцетова) і кетокислоти (кетоглутарова, щавельовоуксусна) і ін.

Аромат і смак м’яса змінюється при посолі. В результаті біохімічних процесів, що протікають при автолізі солоного м’яса, а також унаслідок бактерійної діяльності, органолептичні властивості м’яса змінюються, що супроводжується появою специфічного смаку і аромату, що одержав назву «ветчинність».

Копчення також надає м’ясопродуктам специфічний аромат і смак, обумовлений дією коптильних речовин диму.

Моделювання смаку і аромату. Формування вираженого смаку і аромату м’ясних виробів є важливою задачею, від вирішення якої багато в чому залежить конкурентоспроможність готової продукції.

При виготовленні продуктів з м’яса тварин, відгодованих промисловим способом, а також з великим вмістом рослинних білків, з розмороженого м’яса, виникає необхідність посилити м’ясний смак і аромат. Для цього використовують речовини, так звані потенціатори або інтенсифікатори органолептичних властивостей. Найвідомішим інтенсифікатором, вживаним у вітчизняній і зарубіжній практиці м’ясного виробництва, є глутамінова кислота і її сіль – глутамінат натрію. Глутамінова кислота (α-аміноглутарова кислота; Glu, Е) – аліфатична  α-амінокислота.  Зустрічається у всіх організмах у вільному вигляді (в плазмі крові  разом з  глутаміном становить близько 1/3 всіх вільних амінокислот) та у складі білків. Була вперше виявлена у глютені пшениці, через що і отримала свою назву. In vivo глутамінова кислота синтезується із α-оксоглутарової кислоти – проміжного продукту циклу Кребса. Глутамінова кислота (харчова добавка E620) та її солі (глутамат натрію Е621глутамат калію Е622диглутамат кальцію Е623глутамат амонію Е624глутамат магнію Е625) використовуються як підсилювачі смаку в багатьох харчових концентратах і консервах.

Глутамінова кислота (d-α-аминоглутарова кислота) і глутамінат натрію мають кристалічну структуру, добре розчиняються у воді. Власний смак глутаміната натрію незначний, але він підсилює натуральний смак продукту, до якого його додають. Рецептори смаку людини відчувають присутність глутаміната натрію при розчиненні його у воді в співвідношенні 1:300. Вживання глутаміната натрію найбільш ефективне у продукті з рН 5,5-6,5. Кількість глутаміната натрію, що додається до м’ясних продуктів, звичайно досягає 1 %.

Добавки, метою яких є маскування негативних складових смаку і аромату, називаються нівелаторами. Сіль S’-інозинової кислоти і сіль S’-гуанилової кислоти не тільки покращують смакові властивості м’ясних продуктів і бульйонів, але і володіють здатністю пригнічувати небажані сульфідні, кислі, сальні, хімічні і інші відтінки в запаху і смаку харчових продуктів.

Глутамінат натрію здатний пом’якшувати гостроту цибулі, зменшувати присмак сирого м’яса, металевий присмак і т.д. Застосовують також і інгібітори смаку, до яких, наприклад, відноситься мальтол, пригнічуючий присмак гіркоти, гимнострогенін, зменшуючий солодкий смак і присмак гіркоти.

Кажучи про значущість інтенсифікаторів смаку м’ясних продуктів, слід пам’ятати, що вживання їх повинно бути строго обмеженим і відповідати вимогам гігієни харчування.

Більшість природних ароматичних речовин леткі і вельми нестійкі. Вони швидко руйнуються під впливом температури і фізико-хімічних процесів. Крім того, можливості накопичення ароматичних речовин, що беруть участь у створенні повноти смакових відчуттів харчових продуктів, вельми обмежені. У зв’язку з цим все більше вживання знаходять ароматизатори – препарати, що вживаються для зміни існуючого аромату харчових продуктів.

Ароматизатори з м’ясним ароматом ділять на групи залежно від сировини і способу приготування. Крім того, вони можуть бути окремими з’єднаннями або їх комбінаціями.

Натуральні ароматизатори засновані на виділенні і концентрації смакових і ароматичних речовин з різних видів м’ясної сировини, а також іншої сировини природного походження – дріжджових автолізатів, гидролізатів рослинних і молочних білків. До натуральних ароматизаторів відносяться і прянощі.

Отримання ароматизаторів природного походження зв’язано із застосуванням складної технології і апаратури для уловлювання ароматичних речовин, створенням умов для їх утримування, конденсації, фіксації у стійкому стані.

Істотно покращують органолептичні властивості харчових продуктів, збуджують апетит, сприяють кращому засвоєнню їжі натуральні спеції і прянощі. Вони включають значну групу сухих подрібнених, що традиційно використовувалися в м’ясному виробництві, різних частин пряно-смакових рослин:

Спеції і прянощі використовують при виробництві ковбасних, солоних виробів, напівфабрикатів, швидкозаморожених готових блюд. Прянощі використовують в сухому вигляді цілими або меленими, а також у вигляді екстрактів. Поширення набули вуглекислотні екстракти прянощів, вживання яких дозволяє виробляти продукцію з одноріднішим за інтенсивністю запахом завдяки рівномірному розподілу ароматизатора.

Кожний вид прянощів має свій типовий запах, властивий даному виду рослин з вказівкою його інтенсивності. Строго контролюється і не допускається сторонній запах у прянощах. До складу летючих ароматичних речовин прянощів, так званих ефірних масел, входять складні ефіри, спирти, альдегіди, кетони і вуглеводні (аліфатичні і циклічні).

У даний час стало можливим синтезувати деякі природні ароматичні речовини штучним шляхом. Інструментальна оцінка (хроматографія, ІЧ – спектроскопія і ін.) у поєднанні з результатом органолептичної оцінки і математичною обробкою даних дозволяє наблизитися до отримання об’єктивної характеристики синтезованого аромату.

Імітувати аромат продукту набагато складніше, ніж його смак. Імітатор запаху повинен бути нешкідливим і містити речовини, що входять в ароматичну композицію натурального продукту, або виходять в результаті реакцій, що моделюють процеси, властиві тим, які відбуваються в натуральних харчових продуктах.

Синтетичні імітатори запаху складаються, як правило, з 10-20 хімічних речовин – аналогів з’єднань натуральних ароматизаторів.

Наприклад, похідні фурана мають яскраво виражений м’ясний аромат, для надання аромату печінки використовують етілізоаміл, дісульфіди, ізоаміл. У композиціях для надання м’ясного аромату як компоненти широко використовуються алкандітіоли, меркаптоалкандіоли в чистому вигляді або заздалегідь нанесені на сухі носії.

Використання синтетичних ароматизаторів у м’ясній промисловості різних країн відносно невелике, оскільки це реакційноздатні речовини, які легко змінюються при зберіганні на повітрі і взаємодії один з одним. Більш перспективне поліпшення аромату шляхом внесення продуктів взаємодії сахароамінних реакцій, синтезованих у строго контрольованих умовах, і ретельного відбору початкових речовин реакції.

Як початкові речовини використовують вуглеводи і амінокислоти або білки. Обов’язковою умовою складання ароматизатора з м’ясним ароматом є присутність у реакційній суміші якої-небудь сірковмісної амінокислоти (цистину, цистєїну, метионіну) або інших сірковмісних компонентів (тіаміну, глютатіону). Економічно вигідно використовувати не індивідуальні амінокислоти, а гідролізати білків різного походження. Це можуть бути білки, що містяться у вторинній сировині переробки сільськогосподарської продукції.

Вуглеводний компонент може бути замінений гідролізатом полісахаридів, наприклад, клейковина пшениці, яблучних вичавок або бурякового жому.

Для виробництва ароматизуючих речовин, що створюють запах смаженого продукту, застосовують гідролізати дріжджів, сої, молочної сироватки і т.д., до яких додають певні амінокислоти (цистєїн, метионін), а потім проводять реакцію Майяра з ксилозою, рібозою, фруктозою або глюкозою, а також з деякими жирами і жирними кислотами.

Для надання запаху і смаку копченостям застосовують коптильні препарати.

Специфічний аромат, що виникає у копчених продуктах, є результатом дії на сенсорну систему людини не одиничних з’єднань, а композиції коптильних речовин, що знаходяться у певному збалансованому співвідношенні. Основу композиції складає група так званих ключових ароматизуючих речовин, що входять у фенолову фракцію коптильного середовища. До ключових речовин відносяться гваякол, евгенол, ванілін, циклотен, фенол, о-крезол. В теперішній час виробляють найрізноманітніші аромати диму: на водній основі, масляній основі, у вигляді розсолу і в сухому вигляді. Аромати диму забезпечують не тільки смак і запах, але і фарбування продуктів. Серед нових видів використовують універсальні «підрум’янюючі» речовини з ароматом барбекю для всіх видів м’ясних продуктів, що піддаються тепловій обробці. Натуральні гриль-аромати надають смак і запах смажених продуктів.

Все більше поширення набувають м’ясні ароматизатори цільового призначення, орієнтовані на певний продукт. Наприклад, ароматизатор «шинка» окрім підсилювачів запаху і смаку містить «букет» спецій.

При виборі ароматизаторів, які пропонуються в даний час в достатньо великій кількості, необхідно враховувати склад сировини, передбачуваний вихід і вживану технологію.

Консистенція є однією з найскладніших сенсорних характеристик і властивостей продуктів, враження про яких одержують за допомогою дотикових відчуттів, що виникають у момент зіткнення з продуктом, і шляхом вимірювання інструментальними методами.

Консистенцію характеризують сукупність таких одиничних показників, як твердість, соковитість, ніжність, в’язкість, водянистість, однорідність, волоконність, крихтливість, клейкість, пережовуваність.

Об’єктивні вимірювання параметрів консистенції м’яса і м’ясних продуктів проводять на універсальному приладі «Інстрон».

Соковитість і ніжність, як головні органолептичні показники готової продукції, залежать від прижиттєвих, післязабійних і технологічних чинників.

М’ясо яловичини жорсткіше за м’ясо свинини, сировина молодих тварин ніжніша, ніж старих. Ніжність і соковитість м’яса вгодованих тварин вищі, ніж худих. Продукти, виготовлені з відрубів, що містять багато сполучної тканини, жорсткіші.

Автолітичні процеси, що відбуваються у м’ясній сировині в послязабійний період, є визначаючими у формуванні консистенції м’яса. Ніжність і соковитість парного м’яса, жорсткість його в період посмертного заклякнення пов’язані із ступенем скорочення м’язів. Підвищення ніжності м’яса при дозріванні обумовлено протеолітичним гідролізом м’язових білків під дією тканинних протеаз. Характер і глибина деструкції міофібрілярних білків і білків сполучної тканини залежить від таких чинників, як рН, температура, іонна сила, довжина саркомірів. Значне зменшення жорсткості м’яса досягається за 5-7 діб після забою при температурі зберігання 0-4 °С.

Для підвищення ніжності м’яса широко застосовують різноманітні технологічні дії.

Способи поліпшення консистенції м’яса

У практиці м’ясного виробництва використовують фізичні, хімічні, механічні і біологічні способи підвищення ніжності і соковитості м’яса.

Фізичні способи. Електростимуляція туш безпосередньо після забою дозволяє не тільки зменшити тривалість автолізу, але і дає ефект підвищення ніжності м’яса. Активне скорочення м’язів під дією імпульсів електричного струму викликає фізичну деструкцію м’язових волокон і розрив з’єднань колагену.

Електростимуляцію здійснюють шляхом накладення електродів на різні частини туші і подачі змінного струму напругою від 40 до 2000 В імпульсами, тривалість яких 0,4 с, з перервами між ними 0,6 с. Режими залежать від виду худоби, часу після забою, виду м’язів.

Обробка м’яса високим (140-150 МПа) тиском викликає розпад актоміозинового комплексу на актин і міозин за механізмом, аналогічним  закінченню процесу посмертного заклякнення, що забезпечує підвищення ніжності м’яса.

Дія на м’ясо ультразвукової вібрації (частота 15 кГц протягом 1–30 хв.) приводить до порушення цілісності м’язових волокон і елементів сполучної тканини.

Хімічні способи. Вони засновані на введенні в м’ясо під тиском різних рідких і газоподібних компонентів.

Шприцювання у парне м’ясо води, розсолу з концентрацією хлориду натрію, відповідною ізотонічному розчину (0,9 % NaCl), а також водних розчинів триполіфосфатів і їх сумішей з хлоридом натрію істотно підвищує ніжність м’яса і його водозв’язуючу здатність.

Введення у м’язову тканину газів, повітря під тиском дозволяє поліпшити консистенцію внаслідок розпушування структури.

Якнайкращі результати дає вживання суміші газів: 85 % азоту, 12 % СО2, 1-3 % СО.

Механічні способи. Підвищення ніжності як парної, так і охолодженої сировини може бути досягнутий за рахунок його механічної обробки різного ступеня інтенсивності. Ефективність цих способів залежить від вибору пристроїв, режимів обробки, стану і структури сировини. М’ясо з відносно м’якою консистенцією (свинина, птах) краще обробляти в массажерах, жорсткіше (яловичина, баранина) – в тумблерах. Поверхнева тендерізация дає незначний технологічний ефект.

Біологічні способи. Сутність даного способу полягає у вживанні протеолітичних ферментів для обробки м’ясної сировини. В результаті ферментативного гідролізу білків розм’якшується структура м’язових волокон, що забезпечує підвищення ніжності м’яса, поліпшення органолептичних показників і виходу готової продукції. Ефективність використовування ферментів визначається їх каталітичною активністю, специфічністю дії, оптимумом рН і термостабільністю.

При виборі ферментних препаратів для поліпшення якості м’яса необхідно керуватися наступним. Ферменти повинні у першу чергу викликати зміни в сполучній тканині – розщеплювати мукополісахаридний комплекс, сприяючи зменшенню стійкості сполучної тканини до нагріву, стимулювати гідроліз колагену і еластину, слабо діяти на м’язову тканину; мати можливо вищий температурний оптимум дії, зберігаючи здатність частково змінювати тканини при тепловій обробці; діяти в слабокислому або нейтральному середовищі з максимальною активністю; бути нешкідливими для людини.

У промисловості для пом’якшення жорсткого м’яса найбільш широко використовують папаїн, панкреатин і реніномеїн Г10Х, що володіє достатньо високою колагеназною і еластазною активністю.

Ферментні препарати застосовуються переважно для збільшення ніжності яловичого м’яса. М’язи великої рогатої худоби мають порівняно низьку концентрацію тканинних протеолітичних ферментів – катепсинів. Крім того, багато відрубів мають підвищений вміст сполучної тканини, що обумовлює жорсткість м’яса і його повільне дозрівання.

Важливою умовою ефективності вживання ферментів є спосіб обробки м’яса ферментними препаратами, який повинен забезпечувати їх рівномірний розподіл в оброблюваному об’єкті і хороший контакт з прошарками внутрішньом’язової сполучної тканини.

Оптимальними в даний час є способи: аерозольний, занурення порційних шматків м’яса у ферментний розчин або ін’єкції його шприцями. Залежно від виду ферменту кількість препаратів, що вводяться, складає 0,0005-0,002 % до маси м’яса.

Найбільше поширення біологічні способи тендерізації м’яса набули для обробки жорсткого м’яса при виробництві напівфабрикатів із низькосортної сировини, призначеної для виготовлення варених ковбас.

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