Передмова

Загорко Н.П., Петриченко С.В.  ТЕХНОЛОГІЯ ВИРОБНИЦТВА КОВБАСНИХ ВИРОБІВ, оn-line підручник / Кафедра ОПХВ імені проф. Ф.Ю.Ялпачика, 2018 р.

Однією з основних галузей м’ясної промисловості є ковбасне виробництво. Більша частина загального обсягу виробництва м’ясопродуктів реалізується у вигляді ковбасних виробів. На вартість м’ясної си­ровини припадає значна частка під час виробництва ковбасних виробів. Ефективність ковбасного виробництва залежить як від технології виробів і технічного оснащення виробництва, так і від його організації та раціонального використання сировини.

Ковбасні вироби – це м’ясні продукти з ковбасного фаршу в оболонці, чи без неї, піддані термічній обробці або ферментації та готові до споживання. В склад фаршу залежно від рецептури входять крім основної сировини (м’ясо, шпик), сироватка чи плазма крові, іноді сира кров, білковий стабілізатор, знежирене чи сухе молоко, яйце-продукти, прянощі, в якості зв’язуючих речовин – крохмаль, звичайний чи модифікований, борошно.

Розвиток ковбасного виробництва в Україні бере свій початок з X століття, тобто з часів князя Володимира. Саме давнє згадування про ковбасні вироби знаходимо у Гомера, в його знаменитій «Одіссеї»: «Козячі шлунки лежать там, на вугіллях: самі на вечерю для себе відклали ми, жиром і кров’ю наливши».

В сучасних умовах, підприємства України виготовляють понад 300 найменувань ковбасних виробів. Ковбасні вироби поділяють залежно від виду виробів та способу обробки на варені, напівкопчені, копчені (варено-, сирокопчені та сиров’ялені), фаршировані, сосиски та сардельки, ліверні ковбаси, кров’яні ковбаси, м’ясні хліби, паштети, зельці та студні.

Асортимент ковбас підбирають з урахуванням попиту населен­ня, найповнішого і найефективнішого використання сировини, наявного технологічного обладнання та отримання найбільшого прибутку від реалізації продукції.

Усі ковбасні вироби виготовляють відповідно до технічних умов, технологічних інструкцій і державних стандартів на кожен вид ковбасних виробів.

По харчовій цінності ковбаси не рівноцінні, тому що вони виготовлені за різними рецептурами, тобто включають різні продукти різної харчової цінності. То ж ковбаси можуть містити іо..«зо% білків, ю… 50% жиру. Кількість вологи в них може бути від 20% (сирокопчені та сиров’ялені) до 8о% (зельці). Тому і енергетична цінність їх коливається від 8оо кДж у варених ковбасах та зельцях до 2400 кДж у копчених ковбасах.

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