2 Охолодження м’яса

Консервуюча дія холоду, як і консервуюча дія інших факторів, розрахована, насамперед, на придушення життєдіяльності мікроорганізмів, розвиток яких можливий лише у визначених температурних умовах.

Чим раніше буде застосовано холод, тим швидше будуть загальмовані біохімічні процеси (рисунок 2). Штучне охолодження рекомендують застосовувати якомога швидше після забою тварини.

Рисунок 2 – Процеси, що відбуваються під час охолодження та зберігання м’яса

Охолодження м’яса в товщі м’язів до температури  0-4 °С проводять в спеціальних камерах, обладнаних приладами охолодження. Перед завантаженням камери м’ясом температура повинна бути встановлена на 2-3 ° С нижче режиму обробки. Туші, напівтуші або четвертини підвішують, залишаючи між ними зазор 30-50 мм для кращого повітрообміну. Режим охолодження встановлюють в залежності від виду м’ясопродуктів і вгодованості м’яса. Охолоджують м’ясо протягом 18-24 годин при кратності циркулювання повітря 30 об’ємів за годину і відносній вологості повітря 90-98 %. Температура повітря у камері має бути:

  • від -5 до -1 °С перед початком завантаження;
  • від -2,5 до -1 °С через 10 годин після завантаження;
  • від -3 до -1 °С в кінці обробки.

Рекомендують також інтенсивне охолодження, при якому температура повітря в камері до завантаження м’яса повинна бути: від -5 до -15°С для свинячих напівтуш; від 0 до -2 °С для яловичих; під час завантаження – відповідно від -2 до -5 °С і від 0 до -1 °С. Кратність циркуляції повітря 100 об’ємів за годину. Тривалість охолодження 18 годин.

Охолодженим вважають м’ясо, яке має в товщі м’язів біля кісток температуру від 0 до 4°С і вкрите кірочкою підсихання. Поверхня охолодженого м’яса повинна бути невологою, м’язи еластичними. У процесі охолодження м’яса гістологічні зміни зводяться до слабко помітного зникнення поперечної смугастості. Гемоглобін і міоглобін окислюються киснем повітря. Йде процес дозрівання м’яса, який закінчується через 8- 15 діб зберігання.

Після охолодження м’ясо транспортують у камеру зберігання, в якій підтримують температуру від 0 до мінус 2 °С і відносну вологість повітря 85-90 %.

Після забою тварини у м’ясі відбувається комплекс процесів, які називаються дозріванням. М’язові тканини приймають тверду консистенцію – м’язове заклякнення. Воно наступає через 10-12 годин і залежить від температури навколишнього середовища, виду і віку тварини і т. д. Потім наступає розслаблення (розм’якшення) м’язових волокон, м’ясо набуває характерного аромату і краще піддається кулінарній обробці. М’ясо стає м’яким і соковитим.

В перші години післязабійного заклякнення у м’язах відбувається розпад глікогену. По мірі його розпаду зростає концентрація молочної кислоти, максимум якої спостерігається десь через добу після забою тварини.  Глікоген (також відомий як «тваринний крохмаль», попри неточність цієї назви) — полісахарид, гомополімер α-глюкози, основна форма її зберігання в клітинах тварин, більшості грибів, багатьох бактерійта архей. В організмі головними місцями накопичення глікогену є печінка та скелетні м’язи.

Підвищена концентрація молочної кислоти змінює нейтральне середовище м’язової тканини в кислу сторону – показник концентрації водневих іонів (рН) з 7-7,2 знижується через годину після забою до 6,2, а через добу може доходити до 5,5-5,6. Слід відмітити, що зменшення показника концентрації водневих іонів у м’ясі відбувається через збільшення концентрації не лише молочної, але й фосфорної кислоти, яка утворюється у процесі розпаду глікогена та ін.

Розпад глікогену (процес гліколізу) зумовлений активністю гліколітичних ферментів – мальтази, амілази та інших, тому процес дозрівання м’яса називають ферментативним і автолітичним процесом. Фізико-хімічні зміни у м’ясі, які відбуваються в процесі дозрівання, обумовлюють органолептичні властивості м’яса –запах, смак і консистенцію. Консистенція м’яса змінюється внаслідок розм’якшення і набухання колагену під впливом органічних кислот, які накопичуються в процесі дозрівання м’яса.

Запах і смак дозрілого м’яса залежить від концентрації в ньому глютамінової кислоти, глютаміну і азотних речовин. Дозріле м’ясо має кисле середовище і кірочку підсихання, що попереджує виникнення в ньому небажаних мікробіологічних процесів. При низьких температурах (близько 0°С) період дозрівання може тривати від 2 до 14 діб і більше. В виробничих умовах він, як правило, триває 24…48 годин.

Зміни при зберіганні охолодженого м’яса. Під час зберігання охолодженого м’яса можуть змінюватись органолептичні показники – консистенція, смак, запах, що залежить від умов його зберігання. У процесі зберігання охолодженого м’яса м’язова тканина активно поглинає кисень з утворенням оксигемоглобіну, який надає м’ясу при довгочасному зберіганні темно-червоного або буро-коричневого кольору.

У м’ясі при несприятливих умовах зберігання може протікати ціла низка змін, в тому числі й гниття. Процес гниття виникає внаслідок розвитку гнилісної мікрофлори, яка розкладає органічні складові м’яса, і в першу чергу, білки.

Як правило, гнилісні мікроорганізми потрапляють на м’ясо з поверхні: під час забою і первинної розробки тварин, при зберіганні і транспортуванні м’яса. В місцях зберігання при підвищеній температурі і вологості мікроорганізми швидко проникають сполучнотканинними пластами в середину м’яса. У м’ясі хворих тварин гниття може розпочатися одночасно в усіх частинах туші, так як мікроби ще при житті тварини розповсюджуються скрізь через кровоносну систему.

Процес гниття викликають як аеробні (при доступі кисню), так і анаеробні мікроорганізми.

При аеробному гнитті утворюється вуглекислий аміак, сірководень та інші продукти розпаду білка; анаеробному гнитті – індол, скатол та інші проміжні продукти розпаду білка, які надають м’ясу неприємного запаху. Всі ці продукти утворюються внаслідок розкладання амінокислот білка. Схематично процес розпаду білків молекули має таку послідовність: білок – поліпепти; діпептидиамінокислотиаміакжирні кислоти та їх похідні, вуглекислота і сірководень. Перші ознаки аеробного гниття м’яса – поява слизу на поверхні та несвіжий запах.

Флора  протеолітичних  мікроорганізмів багаточисельна і різночинна. Вона непостійна при гнитті м’яса – на початку гниття спостерігаються аероби, потім анаероби. В гниючому м’ясі можуть проявити свою діяльність мікроорганізми, які виділяють стійкі до високих температур шкідливі речовини.

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  83. Benzersiz bir şekilde bakımlı olarak çok özel bir şehvet hissi sunacak mükemmel bir stille seksiyim. Özel, çok özel ve harika deneyimler sunan mükemmel bayanlardan biriyim. 21 yaşındayım, 172 cm boyunda, 63 kg, size eşsiz bir memnuniyet verecek, tam bir zevk duygusu için benimle takılacağınızı söyleyebilirim. escort Ben seçkin eskortlardan biriyim, çok özel ve harika görünümlü kadın, her yönünü tatmin etmek için özgürce takıldığımı fark edecek saatlerimi benimle deneyimlemek eşsiz olacak.

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  86. Benzersiz bir şekilde bakımlı olarak çok özel bir şehvet hissi sunacak mükemmel bir stille seksiyim. Özel, çok özel ve harika deneyimler sunan mükemmel bayanlardan biriyim. 21 yaşındayım, 172 cm boyunda, 63 kg, size eşsiz bir memnuniyet verecek, tam bir zevk duygusu için benimle takılacağınızı söyleyebilirim. escort Ben seçkin eskortlardan biriyim, çok özel ve harika görünümlü kadın, her yönünü tatmin etmek için özgürce takıldığımı fark edecek saatlerimi benimle deneyimlemek eşsiz olacak.

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