1 Види і породи забійних тварин

Для виробництва м’ясопродуктів та інших продуктів забою використовуються туші всіх тварин і птахів, м’ясо яких вважається придатним для харчування людини. Основною сировиною для виробництва м’ясних продуктів в Україні є велика рогата худоба (ВРХ), свині і свійська птиця (кури, курчата, качки, гуси, індики). Невелику частку займають вівці, а також кози, коні і кролики (рисунок 1.1).

Рисунок 1.1 – Розподіл сировини для отримання м’яса в Україні

Технологічний потенціал м’ясної сировини, залежать від породи, виду тварин, генетики, статі, віку, раціону годування, умов утримання, стану здоров’я (рисунок 1.2).

Показниками м’ясної продуктивності є жива маса і забійна маса тварини і його забійний вихід.

Жива маса – маса тварини до забою. Визначається вона зважуванням і виражається в кілограмах. Велика рогата худоба має максимальну живу масу – 300-1200 кг, а дрібна рогата худоба (вівці і кози) – мінімальну – 55-190 кг.

Забійна маса – це маса обробленої м’ясної туші без шкури, нижніх кінцівок і внутрішніх органів. Вона також визначається зважуванням і виражається в кілограмах. Найбільша жива маса – у великої рогатої худоби.

Рисунок 1.2 – Схема формування технологічного потенціалу м’ясної сировини

Забійний вихід – це відношення забійної маси худоби до його живої маси, виражене у відсотках. Найвищий забійний вихід мають свині – 60-80 %. У великої рогатої худоби він складає 55-70 %, у дрібної – 45-60 %. Найбільший забійний вихід серед всіх видів худоби звичайно у молодих і вгодованих тварин, а також самців.

Порода сільськогосподарських тварин і птиці впливає на забійний вихід м’яса, співвідношення в м’ясі м’язової, жирової і кісткової тканин, якість м’яса.

Велика рогата худоба за продуктивністю поділяється на м’ясну, молочну і комбіновану (рисунок 1.3).

Рисунок 1.3 – Розподіл ВРХ за продуктивністю

 Забійна маса спеціалізованих м’ясних порід набагато вища (60-70 %), ніж у порід молочного і комбінованого напрямів (54-56 %). Від тваринних м’ясних порід одержують найбільш цінне м’ясо з добре розвиненою м’язовою і жировою тканинами, тому екстер’єр тварин має велике значення для м’ясної промисловості (рисунок 1.4).

Рисунок 1.4 – Будова тіла великої рогатої худоби:

а) молочної породи; б) м’ясної породи.

Для тваринних м’ясних порід характерні скороспілість, добре розвинені м’язи, помірне відкладення жиру, який розташовується головним чином між м’язами і у меншій мірі під шкірою і біля внутрішніх органів.

Переваги мають і якісні показники м’яса. Таке м’ясо ніжне, соковите і смачне (рисунок 1.5).

Рисунок 1.5 – Характеристика тварин м’ясної направленості

Українська м’ясна порода великої рогатої худоби м’ясного напряму продуктивності виведена в Україні, апробована і затверджена наказом Мінсільгосппроду України від 30 липня 1993 року № 211. Перша вітчизняна м’ясна порода, виведена після здобуття Україною незалежності. Вона одержана методом складного відтворювального схрещування з використанням чотирьох вихідних порід: шароле, кіанська (спеціалізовані імпортні м’ясні), симентальська і сіра українська (місцеві молочно-м’ясні). У процесі створення породи було визначено 50 найкращих бугайців, які в 12-місячному віці мали живу масу понад 500 кг. Станом на 2010-і роки популяція породи становила близько 20 тис. голів, з яких було 5 тис. корів. Завдяки високій акліматизаційній здатності її успішно розводять у більшості природно-кліматичних зон України.

 Комбіновані породи займають проміжний стан між молочною і м’ясною за всіма показниками. Забійний вихід становить до 65%. М’ясо молочно-м’ясних порід характеризується нижчою якістю, в ньому більше кісток і сполучної тканини, значно менше внутрішньом’язового жиру, воно гірше засвоюється.

ВРХ молочних порід відрізняється більш пізнім терміном визрівання ніж м’ясні породи, дає менший вихід м’яса і має характерні ознаки, показані на схемі (рисунок 1.6).

 Рисунок 1.6 – Характеристика ВРХ молочної направленості

 Дрібна рогата худоба налічує близько 40 високопродуктивних порід овець (рисунок 1.7). У нашій країні розводять головним чином тонкорунних овець. Тонкорунні породи характеризуються хорошим розвитком шерстного покрову і хорошими м’ясними якостями. Кращими породами овець, пристосованими до природних умов України, є асканійська і гірно-карпатська.

Рисунок 1.7 – Породи дрібної рогатої худоби 

Свині, як сировина м’ясної промисловості, займають одне з основних місць. Це обумовлено хорошою плодючістю, скороспілістю, високими забійними виходами. За напрямками продуктивності всі породи свиней розділяють на три основні типи: сальні, м’ясні і беконні (рисунок 1.8).

Рисунок 1.8 – Класифікація порід свиней за продуктивністю

Свині сального напряму продуктивності характеризуються округлим, широким тулубом, невеликою головою. Кінцівки короткі і товсті, окости великі, шкіра тонка. Вони, як правило, скоростиглі, їх маса в 12-місячному віці досягає 135-140 кг, забійний вихід коливається від 75 до 88 %, зокрема вихід сала досягає 50 %.

Основна маса свиней, які поступають на забій – це породи м’ясного напряму. Вони мають пропорційно розвинений тулуб, широку спину і поясницю, помірної довжини кінцівки і добре розвинені окости. Забійний вихід коливається від 75 до 80 %. При хорошій відгодівлі жива маса свині у віці 8-9 місяців досягає 120 кг, а забійний вихід 60-70 %. Від свиней цього напряму одержують ніжне, смачне тонковолокнисте м’ясо.

Робота зі створення української м’ясної породи свиней розпочалася у 1981 році на основі апробованого у 1978 році полтавського м’ясного типу свиней ПМ-1 та покручів різних поєднань харківської, білоруської та асканійської селекції. Порода створена внаслідок застосування нового методу складного відтворювального схрещування з максимальним використанням на всіх етапах селекційного процесу рекордних тварин, оцінки гено- і фенотипу, спадкових конституціональних властивостей, морфологічних, фізіологічних ознак та фізико-хімічних показників якості м’яса і сала. У породі створено три заводських типи: центральний полтавський, харківський і асканійський з генеалогічною структурою 12 ліній кнурів і 25 родин свиноматок.

Автори породи (науковий керівник і основний виконавець) професор Баньковський Б. В., а також учені й виробничники Медведєв В. О., Соловйов І. В., Ткачов А. Ф., Акімов С. В., Жиркова Р. М., Баньковська І. Б., Луценко В. А., Борисенко М. М., Ткаченко Л. О., Москаленко І. М., Сотніченко Г. І., Кравчук М. О., Манько Г. М., Брижко Ф. Я., Харченко А. П. та інші.

За даними породного обліку, загальна чисельність свиней української м’ясної породи становить 67,8 тис. голів, у тому числі 3040 основних свиноматок і 400 кнурів-плідників. Свиней м’ясної породи розводять у 22 господарствах різних зон України та за її межами.

Свині беконного напряму продуктивності відрізняються довгим тулубом, глибокими грудьми, високими кінцівками, розвиненими окостами і тонкою гладкою шкірою. При раціональній відгодівлі свиней породи ландрас якість м’яса і товарні показники відповідають вимогам світового стандарту. М’ясо, одержане від беконних свиней, ніжне, соковите і з твердим жиром, в ньому міститься більше білків, ніж жиру, що підвищує якість і біологічну цінність. Жива маса дорослих свиней дорівнює 250-260 кг. Тварини швидко ростуть і мають високі прирости живої маси. Забійний вихід – 76-78 % при виході м’яса 74 %.

Сільськогосподарські птиці. Для отримання м’яса використовують курей, качок, гусей і індиків (рисунок 1.9). Скороспілість птиці і значна енергія зростання дозволяють швидко і у великій кількості одержувати високоякісну продукцію.

Птиці класифікуються за напрямком продуктивності, а також за географічною ознакою.

 Рисунок 1.9 – Породи сільськогосподарської птиці

 Яєчні породи курей відрізняються високою яйценоскістю, але недостатньо вираженою м’ясною продуктивністю і порівняно низькою якістю м’яса. У м’ясо-яєчних порід якість м’яса значно краща, ніж у яєчних порід.

М’ясні породи курей мають велику живу масу і хорошу скороспілість. Їх розводять головним чином для виробництва м’ясних курчат (бройлерів). Жива маса півнів складає 4,5-5,5 кг, курей – 3,4-4,0 кг. Забійний вихід напівпатраних тушок курчат 80 %, патраних – 59-60 %, дорослого птаха – відповідно 80 і 62 %.

Найбільш поширеними є породи м’ясного напряму продуктивності. Племінна робота направлена на підвищення виходу м’яса, зниження витрат на корм, підвищення яйценоскості і скороспілості.

М’ясні породи качок характеризуються хорошою якістю м’яса і здатністю накопичувати значні кількості жиру. Жива маса дорослих качок коливається в межах 3,0-3,5 кг, селезнів – 3,5-4,0 кг. Забійний вихід патраних тушок – 59-60 %.

Гуси м’ясних порід відрізняються достатньо високою скороспілістю і хорошими м’ясними якостями.

Залежно від породи жива маса гусей коливається від 4,0-5,0 (китайська порода) до 11-12 кг (тулузька порода). В середньому жива маса більшості порід знаходиться в межах 6,0-7,0 кг, а забійний вихід патраних тушок складає 60 %.

Індики різних порід розрізняються за живою масою, скороспілістю, але завжди зберігають м’ясний тип будови тіла. В середньому індички більшості порід важать 6,0-8,0 кг, індики – 12-18 кг, забійний вихід патраних туш – 34 %.

Кролі за напрямком використання ділять на м’ясні, м’ясо-шкуркові, пухові, а залежно від розміру – на великі (більше 4,5 кг), середні (3,0-4,5 кг) і дрібні (до 3 кг). Кролики м’ясних порід, серед яких найбільш поширеними є сірий велетень, радянська шиншила, відрізняються високою скороспілістю, пристосованістю до клімату України, великою масою і хорошою якістю шкірки. Кращі тварини окремих ліній важать біля 6-7 кг, забійний вихід 51-55 %.

Вид тварин робить визначальний вплив на якість м’яса. Видову приналежність м’яса встановлюють за його кольором, запахом, консистенцією м’язової тканини і жиру і т.д. Звичайно, чим більше за розміром і масою вид тварини, тим грубіші м’язові волокна, сильніше розвинена внутрішньом’язова сполучна тканина, темніший колір м’яса. Так, м’ясо великої рогатої худоби представлене грубішою м’язовою тканиною, ніж м’ясо свиней. До складу яловичини входить значна кількість водо- і солерозчинних білків, що обумовлюють високу водозв’язуючу здатність і колір.

Свинина містить більше жирової тканини, має ніжну консистенцію. Завдяки екстрактним речовинам і легкоплавкому жиру цей вид м’яса має хороші органолептичні показники.

Генетика. Основні показники якості м’яса – ступінь розвитку м’язових волокон, рівень рН, стресочутливість передаються тваринам за спадком.

Досягнення науки останніх років відкривають можливість генної модифікації сільськогосподарських тварин. За рахунок інтеграції в організмі тварини специфічних генів можна не тільки прискорити формування продуктивних показників і значно поліпшити їх, але і підвищити стійкість до захворювань, направлено змінити їх спадкові ознаки, ступінь небезпеки для здоров’я людини модифікованих генів.

Стать. Цей чинник впливає на вихід і якість м’яса у дорослих і старих тварин. Статеві відмінності в ранньому віці тварин менш виражені. М’ясо самців в порівнянні з м’ясом самок містить більше вологи і менше білка і жиру. Консистенція м’яса самців жорсткіша, грубіша із-за високого вмісту сполучної тканини, забарвлення темне. М’ясо некастрованих самців має специфічний запах. Кастровані тварини відрізняються менш грубою мускулатурою. М’ясо, що одержують від них, має характерний малюнок «мармуровості».

Вік. З віком тварини змінюється морфологічна структура м’яса і його хімічний склад. Вік тварин впливає на жорсткість м’яса у зв’язку з потовщенням м’язових волокон, із зниженням розчинності колагену. Оптимальний вік худоби для промислової переробки: ВРХ – 15-18 міс., свиней – 8 міс.

Вгодованість тварин. За інших рівних умов ступінь вгодованої тварин безпосередньо впливає на якість м’яса. Із збільшенням вгодованості істотно змінюється морфологічний, а разом з ним і хімічний склад м’яса. Від добре відгодованих тварин одержують більше найбільш цінних тканин – м’язової і жирової. В загальній масі білків зменшується частка колагену і еластину, що підвищує повноцінність білків м’яса, воно має ніжнішу консистенцію. М’ясо відгодованих тварин містить більше глікогену, що забезпечує глибоке протікання процесу дозрівання, відрізняється високою вологоутримуючою здатністю. З підвищенням вгодованості збільшується категорійність м’яса і збільшується кількість м’яса вищих сортів.

Умови утримання худоби. Промислова технологія вирощування худоби забезпечує отримання тварин м’ясної вгодованості. Проте безвигульне утримання, порушення складу раціонів годування підвищує сприйнятливість тварин до стресу і негативно позначається на якості м’яса.

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