6 Переробка худоби на підприємствах малої потужності і в місцях вирощування

На цих підприємствах встановлюють спрощені комплекти устаткування, призначені для забою худоби і обробки туш великої рогатої худоби і свиней. Схема цеху приведена на рисунку 1.24.

На такому підприємстві не передбачається повна якісна обробка субпродуктів, шкур, кишок, жирової сировини, що знижує рентабельність виробництва. Устаткування для оснащення малого підприємства з повним циклом переробки показано на рисунку 1.25.

Рисунок 1.24 – Схема цеху забою худоби і обробки туш малої потужності:

1 – терези; 2 – бокс для оглушення; 3 – апарат для електрооглушення; 4 – електротельфер; 5 – підвісний шлях; 6 – піддон для збору крові; 7 – вішало для голови; 8 – візок вантажний; 9 – чан-візок; 10 – виробничий стіл; 11 – перфорований стіл; 12 – стіл для розбирання ліверу, 13 – стенд санекспертизи; 14 – агрегат для зйомки шкур; 15 – стелаж для посолу шкур; 16– ємність для солі; 17 – електричний котел

Комплект устаткування (Полтавамаш) дозволяє проводити обробку кишкової сировини на машині для очищення кишок, шпарення субпродуктів в парильному чані, обезволожування і зняття слизу на центрифузі, витоплення і очищення жиру, обробку шкур на спеціальному столі і їх посол.

Переробка худоби в місцях вирощування. У зв’язку з переходом на ринкову економіку багато тваринницьких підприємств прагнуть продавати не худобу, а м’ясо і м’ясні продукти. В господарствах, де вирощують худобу, будують забійні пункти продуктивністю 10 і 5-7 голів великої рогатої худоби в зміну. На цих пунктах можна також проводити забій дрібної рогатої худоби і свиней. Забійні пункти дозволяють зосередити переробку тварин на м’ясо у визначеному місці і тим самим забезпечити ветеринарно-санітарний контроль при забої і обробленні туш і створити передумови для найраціональнішого використовування продуктів забою.

Рис. 1.25 – Комплект устаткування для забійних цехів малої потужності К7-ФЦУ:

1 – бокс для оглушення К7-ФЦУ/1-1; 2 – пристрій оглушення; 3 – таль вантажопідйомністю 1,5 т, 4 – монорельс; 5 – майданчик для забою і знекровлення; 6 – майданчик підйомний механічний К7-ФЦУ/1-3; 7 – рама для голів КРС К7- ФЦУ/1-2; 8 – пристрій для зняття шкур КРС К7-ФЦУ/1-7; 9 – майданчик для оглушення свиней; 10 – таль вантажопідйомністю 0,5 т, 11 – щипці для оглушення свиней з трансформатором К7-ФЦУ/1-6; 12 – майданчик для забою і знекровлення; 13 – душовий пристрій; 14 – стіл для прийому туш свиней К7-ФЦУ/1-8, 15 – шпарильний чан; 16 – газовий пальник; 17 – стіл прийому внутрішніх органів; 18 – стіл нутровки, 19 – пила; 20 – терези; 21 – виробничий стіл; 22 – рольганг; 23, 24 – столи для зачистки і сортування шерстних субпродуктів; 25 – центрифуга; 26 – стіл прийому голів, 27 – пила для відділення рогів; 28 – стіл для прийому ліверу; 29 – стенд санекспертизи; 30 – установка для обробки кишкової сировини; 31 – чан прийому кишкової сировини

Розташовують забійні пункти зовні населеного пункту на відстані не менше 500 м з підвітряної сторони від житлових споруд, тваринницьких приміщень і водоймищ. Всю ділянку обгороджують забором заввишки не менше 2 м. Пункти звичайно підрозділяють на три зони: передзабійного утримання худоби, зона виробничих приміщень; зона підсобних приміщень. В зоні передзабійного утримання худоби розташовують майданчик для прийому і ветеринарного огляду тварин, а також загороди для ізоляції хворих тварин. У виробничій зоні здійснюється забій і переробка тварин. Пункти потужністю 10 і 25 голів великої рогатої худоби можуть мати ковбасний цех і холодильник.

Скотозабійні пункти повинні мати гарячу і холодну воду, очисні споруди.

Все більше поширення набувають пересувні бойні, що складаються з технологічних, холодильних, побутових і обслуговуючих фургонів.

Вони володіють великою маневреністю. При правильній організації за зміну можна переробити 40-50 голів великої рогатої худоби або 90-100 свиней (овець).

Технологічні фургони і холодильні фургони з’єднуються в єдиний блок. До складу бойні входять також пересувні установки енергозабезпечення: котельна, устаткування водопідготовки, дизельна електростанція, а також холодильна станція, градирня з насосною станцією.

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