5 Устаткування для зберігання і транспортування додаткової сировини

На хлібопекарські підприємства сіль надходить в автосамоскидах і вивантажується в прийомний бункер (відсік) солерозчинника, що розміщується на 2—2,5 м нижче від рівня підлоги. Бункер розташовано в одному з приміщень чи у дворі біля будинку хлібопекарні. Число відсіків і ємності, а відповідно і тривалість відстоювання солоного розчину залежать від потужності хлібопекарні.

У приймальний відсік підводиться по трубопроводу з нержавіючої сталі гаряча і холодна вода для розчинення солі. Вода, проходячи знизу через шар солі, насичується і самопливом через люки в поперечних перегородках заповнює усі відсіки розчином однакової концентрації (концентрація 1,2 г/см3). Для перекачування сольового розчину установлюють відцентрові кислототривкі насоси продуктивністю до 10 м3/год і напором 0.34 кПа (34 м вод. ст. ) Рекомендується використовувати пневмокамерні насоси (монжуси) для запобігання окислювання деталей насоса і швидкого виходу його з ладу.

На підприємствах, що одержують малу кількість солі, застосовуються  солерозчинники марки ХСР-3 ємністю 0,6 і 1,0 м3.

Для транспортування цукрового піску і цукрової пудри використовуються установки для переміщення вантажу в щільній фазі чи аерозольтранспортні установки (нагнітального типу) з тиском у трубопроводі 30 кПа. При такому транспортуванні концентрація аеросуміші висок6а (50—20 кг/кг) і вміст твердих часток у ній досягає 25-30% обсягу сировини.

При пневматичному транспортуванні через удари часток цукрового піску об стінки продуктопроводу а також при проходженні через живильники і розвантажувачі кристали цукрового піску подрібнюються і стираються.

Великі труднощі зустрічаються при очищенні повітря у відцентрових циклонах – завантажувачах, де частки цукру розміром менш 50 мкм майже не відокремлюються. У цих умовах приходиться застосовувати для відпрацьованого повітря багаторазове очищення з використанням батарейних циклонів, складних і громіздких рукавних і мокрих фільтрів.

Розроблено пневматичну установку з замкнутим циклом для транспортування цукру-піску. Вона складається з відцентрового вентилятора; циклона-розвантажувача УЦ-38 з мішечним фільтром, установленим на кришці викидного равлика циклона-розвантажувача; живильника (для цукрового піску – тканинний затвор із гвинтовим живильником) зворотної лінії (повітропроводу) від викидного равлика циклона-роздільника до усмоктувального штуцера вентилятора. Така установка не вимагає багаторазового очищення відпрацьованого повітря і не дає втрат продукту в результаті утворення пилу.

При виробленні хлібобулочних виробів і різних сортів сухарів використовують цукрові розчини концентрацією 1,23—1,31 г/см3.

При зниженні концентрації цукор швидко викристалізовується. Для запобігання цього явища додають поварену сіль до 2,5% до маси цукру в розчині.

Цукрово-сольовий розчин добре зберігається більш 3 місяців.

Ємності для готування і зберігання цукрового і цукрово-сольового розчину виготовляють з нержавіючої сталі. Фільтруючою поверхнею є сітка, у кілька шарів встановлена в трубі. У вихідного отвору встановлюють додатковий фільтр, що складається з двох шарів бельтингу.

Цукрово-сольовий розчин перекачується насосом по трубах з нержавіючої сталі. Цукор розчиняється у воді при температурі 50—60°С за 3—4 год. при перемішуванні. Для розчинення і зберігання цукрового розчину застосовують пневматичну установку марки Т1-ХСП.

При відстані від хлібозаводу до маргаринового заводу не більш 20—30 км доцільно доставляти маргарин в рідкому стані. Він транспортується в автоцистернах ємністю 2000 л. забезпечених термоізоляцією.

Маргарин зберігається в баках з нержавіючої сталі з пропелерними мішалками. Температура рідкого маргарину при зберіганні повинна бути 35—48°С, при подачі в дозуючу станцію – 38 – 46˚С; вологість 14,3–18,7%, кислотність 1,05–2,7 град. Для підтримки постійної температури рідкого маргарину передбачена водяна сорочка.

Однорідність маргаринової емульсії забезпечується за допомогою емульсатора (насоса) шляхом перекачування маргарину з одного бака в інший при одночасній роботі мішалок протягом 1 хв. через кожні 15 хв.

Дріжджове молоко доставляється з дріжджового заводу в автоцистернах з нержавіючої сталі і термоізоляцією. Однорідність концентрації дріжджового молока забезпечується циркуляцією його при перекачуванні в прийомні баки з нержавіючої сталі. Баки мають сорочку для охолодження і постачені мішалкою, що включається на 30 хв. через кожні 15 хв. Температура дріжджового молока при надходженні на хлібозавод 8—14˚С, при перекачуванні вона підвищується на 3—4˚С. При 2-добовому зберіганні, що допускається, температура повинна підтримуватися в межах 8—10˚С.

Для зберігання рослинної олії використовують баки з листової сталі. На підприємства вона надходить в автоцистернах. Автоцистерну підключають до штуцера відцентрового насоса, встановленого в приміщенні для прийому олії. Перекачування 1 т олії в літню пору – протягом 15–17 хв, у зимову – протягом 30 хв.

Молочна сироватка доставляється на хлібозавод в автоцистернах ємністю 2 т. Сироватка перекачується у видаткові баки з нержавіючої сталі ємністю 1–3 м3 чи в термоізоляційні танки ємністю 2000 л марки РМГЦ-2. Зберігання сироватки допускається в межах, що забезпечують 2-змінний її запас. Швидке підвищення кислотності обмежує тривалістьїї зберігання.

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