1 Загальні відомості

Основною сировиною виробництва хлібопекарських виробів є борошно, вода, сіль, дріжджі, а допоміжним – цілий ряд продуктів (цукор, жир, яйця та ін.). Для зберігання цих продуктів на хлібопекарських підприємствах є спеціальні склади, а для переміщення сировини – різні транспортуючі пристрої.

Із сировини використовуваної для виробництва хліба, у найбільшій кількості витрачається борошно; тому велику частину складської площі (до 80%) займає борошняний склад (сховища для борошна) і більшість транспортуючих пристроїв призначених для переміщення борошна.

В даний час у хлібопекарському виробництві застосовують два способи зберігання і транспортування борошна: тарний (у мішках) і безтарний (насипом).

Безтарний спосіб застосовується на хлібопекарських підприємствах середньої і більшої потужності. Для безтарного зберігання борошна використовують склади відкритого і закритого типу. У першому випадку ємності для зберігання борошна встановлюють у закритому приміщенні, у другому – під легким навісом на відкритому повітрі. Рекомендується використовувати закриті склади.

Тарний спосіб застосовується на малих і середніх хлібопекарських підприємствах. Зберігають мішки з борошном у штабелях, кожна партія (сорт) окремо, у міру надходження при висоті укладання не більше 8-12 мішків.

Для транспортування борошна використовують різні механізми в залежності від способу зберігання борошна і застосовуваних установок.

При безтарному зберіганні борошно транспортують із млина на хлібозавод у спеціальних машинах – борошновозах і зберігають її в залізобетонних чи металевих силосах ємністю 15…50 т, розташованих у сховищах для борошна.

При тарному зберіганні на хлібозаводі борошно з млина транспортують на завод автомашинами і зберігають її в мішках, що укладаються в борошняних складах у штабелі.

Як показала практика, більш доцільні на хлібозаводах безтарні транспортування і зберігання борошна, тому що при цьому відпадає потреба в мішках, цілком можуть бути механізовані всі трудомісткі вантажно-розвантажувальні роботи.

Однак на хлібопекарських підприємствах малої потужності безтарне зберігання борошна економічно невигідно через великі капітальні вкладення.

Класифікація транспортуючих установок для борошна приведена на рис. 1.


Рисунок 1 Класифікація транспортуючих установок для борошна


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