5 Посадкові механізми

Посадкові механізми виконують дві функції: розподіляють однорядний потік тістових заготівок і укладають заготівки в колиски вистоювального конвеєра.

Механізми для розподілу потоку заготівок у необхідну кількість рядів можуть бути маятникові і стрічкові (рис. 13).

Механізми укладання являють собою конвеєр, що повертається, або касету зі стулками, що розкриваються, в яку у визначеній послідовності укладаються заготівки.      

Рисунок 13 Схеми роботи розподільних пристроїв:
а – маятниковий посадчик; б – крильчатий розподільник на шість потоків.
Рисунок 14 Стрічковий автоукладальник «Київський»:
1 – кронштейн; 2 – отвір; 3 – тістова заготівка; 4 – панель; 5 – важелі; 6 – упори; 7 – тяга; 8 – шибери; 9 – конвеєр; 10 – канал; 11 – каркас; 12 – тяга; 13 – гайка; 14 – шток; 15 – станина; 16 – шарнір; 17 – похилі лотки; 18 – колиска.

В агрегатах Т1-ХРЗ-140 установлений спеціальний укладальник шматків тіста. В агрегатах РШВ застосовується роторно-стрічковий укладальник.

Широке розповсюдження одержав укладальник тістових заготівок у касети вистоювального конвеєра при виробництві різноманітного асортименту хлібобулочних виробів на потокових лініях з печами ПХК-50, БН-50, БН-25, ХВЛ, АЦХ, ФТЛ-2, показаний на рис. 14.

Автоукладальник складається з похилого стрічкового конвеєра і нерухомо закріпленої на його нижній частині панелі з отворами. Конвеєр і панель утворюють канал V-подібної форми. Конвеєр установлений на шарнірі, що кріпиться до станини. На цій же станині укріплений інший шарнір, що має шток з гайками. Шток зв’язаний тягою з каркасом конвеєра і служить для зміни кута нахилу каналу стосовно колиски конвеєра вистоювання. На панелі маються кронштейни, у яких рухливо уставлені важелі з укріпленими на них шиберами. На цій же панелі змонтована тяга з упорами, зв’язана з колискою конвеєра важелем.

Біля отворів установлені похилі лотки. Їхня кількість відповідає числу заготівок на колисці. Тістова заготівка конвеєром подається до отвору. Наштовхуючись на шибер, заготівка під дією стрічки конвеєра, а також власної маси скачується в отвір через лоток у колиску вистоювального конвеєра. При скочуванні в колиску конвеєра заготівка впливає на шибер, нижній кінець якого відігнутий усередину отвору. Таким чином, шибер закриває отвір, звільняючи шлях наступній заготівки. Наступна заготівка попадає в другий отвір і робить таку ж операцію, як і перша; і так до останньої заготівки.

Тістоділильна машина, що видає шматки тіста на автоукладальник, після розподілу заданої кількості шматків автоматично зупиняється. Включається конвеєр вистоювальної шафи, колиски переміщаються на один крок, і цикл завантаження повторюється.

Технічна характеристика автоукладальника «Київський» приведена нижче.

Продуктивність укладання, число шматків

у хвилину                                                                                40

Маса шматків, кг                                                                0,1 – 2,0

Швидкість стрічки, м/с                                                          0,8

Потужність електродвигуна, кВт                                          0,6

Габаритні розміри, мм:

довжина                                                                           2895        

ширина                                                                             500        

висота                                                                               1060

Маса, кг                                                                                    200

Тістові заготівки з колиски вистоювального конвеєра можуть пересаджуватися безпосередньо на під печі або на проміжний пересадний механізм, що потім переносить тістові заготівки й укладає їх на під печі. Тому пересадні механізми розділяють на механізми для розвантаження колисок вистоювального конвеєра і пристрої для посадки тістових заготівок на під печі.

За принципом роботи пересадні механізми поділяються на інерційні і стрічкові. Розроблено ряд стрічкових посадчиків, що працюють за принципом «стрічки, що тікає», для посадки тістових заготівок батонів і круглого подового хліба на колиски печі ФТЛ-2 або на під стрічкових печей. Пересадні механізми цього типу працюють плавно.

На деяких хлібозаводах для посадки подових хлібобулочних виробів на колиски конвеєрних печей встановлюють інерційні посадкові механізми з горизонтальною чи похилою посадковою поверхнею (лопатою). Дія цих механізмів періодична.

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