1 Класифікація вистоювального обладнання

Установки для вистоювання тіста призначені для додаткового бродіння тіста в шматках, що надходять від формуючих машин.

Мета вистоювання – відновити порушену при формуванні структуру тіста за рахунок додаткового шумування.

Піддаючись механічній обробці в тістоділильних, округлювальних і закатувальних машинах, тісто втрачає велику частину вуглекислого газу, що міститься в ньому і додає йому пористу структуру. Під час же вистоювання сформовані шматки тіста трохи збільшуються в обсязі, здобувають форму, що наближається до форми готових виробів, стають рівномірно пористими й одержують рівну, гладку й еластичну поверхню.

Під час вистоювання обсяг сформованих шматків тіста збільшується завдяки тому, що газ, який виділяється під час шумування, прагне вийти з тіста, зустрічає на своєму шляху клейковину, піднімає і розсовує її.

При недостатньо повно проведеному вистоюванні чи його відсутності готові вироби виходять безформними, із щільною м’якушкою і надривами.     

У процесі оброблення пшеничного тіста передбачаються два вистоювання: попереднє – безпосередньо після округлювальної машини й остаточне – після формування виробів перед посадкою їх у піч. Попереднє вистоювання шматків пшеничного тіста проводиться протягом 5-8 хв, а остаточне – протягом 30-45 хв.

Для шматків житнього тіста звичайно обмежуються одним вистоюванням перед посадкою виробів у піч протягом 40-45 хв. Тривалість вистоювання залежить не тільки від сорту тіста, але й у значній мірі від форми, рецептури і маси тістових заготівок.

Попереднє вистоювання проводиться в атмосфері повітря цеху, а остаточне вистоювання – у спеціальних вистоювальних шафах з певними параметрами повітря (вологість, температура).

Так як тривалість остаточного вистоювання шматків тіста більше тривалості попереднього вистоювання, то за час вистоювання можливі підсихання і звітрювання виробів. Тому остаточне вистоювання пшеничного тіста варто робити в повітряному середовищі з вологістю 80-85 % і з температурою 35-40о С, а житнього тіста – при тій  же вологості повітря, але при 30-35о С. Процес вистоювання шматків тіста в середовищі з зазначеними параметрами здійснюється в спеціальних шафах, обладнаних конвеєрами, і в камерах, шматки тіста в яких містяться на етажерках або полицях.

Повітря з необхідними параметрами одержують у кондиціонуючих установках або для цієї мети використовують звичайні опалювальні прилади і прості зволожувальні апарати, установлювані безпосередньо в камерах.

При установці нагрівальних і зволожувальних пристроїв безпосередньо в камерах волога і температура нерівномірно розподіляються в камері, що негативно позначається на якості вистоювання.

Більш досконалі установки для вистоювання, у які повітря подається з окремих пристроїв для кондиціонування повітря.

Найбільш примітивний спосіб вистоювання полягає у витримуванні шматків тіста на відкритих стелажах або етажерках, що поміщаються безпосередньо в тістоподільному цеху.

Як попереднє, так і остаточне вистоювання шматків тіста є важливим процесом хлібопекарського виробництва і забезпечує значне поліпшення якості продукції.     

Класифікація обладнання для вистоювання шматків тіста приведена на рис. 1.


Рисунок 1 Класифікація обладнання для вистоювання тіста.

Оскільки попереднє й особливо остаточне вистоювання є тривалими процесами, то для скорочення довжини конвеєрів вистоювання провадиться на багатомісних колисках (касетах).

Як правило, кількість тістових заготівок, розташованих на колисці агрегату остаточного вистоювання, відповідає кількості заготівок, розташованих на колисці або на поду печі по ширині.

Конвеєрні шафи для вистоювання підрозділяють на універсальні з ручним укладанням виробів на колиски і спеціальні для укладання і вистоювання тістових заготівок виробів певного асортименту. У цьому випадку вистоювальні агрегати комплектуються укладальними механізмами для переформування однорідного потоку в багаторядний і укладання заготівок на колиски вистоювального агрегату.

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