7 Класифікація обладнання для дозування сировини

Основне призначення дозуючих пристроїв – забезпечити відмірювання заданої кількості матеріалу (чи підтримки заданих витрат компонента) з відповідною точністю.

До дозаторів висувають наступні вимоги:

У хлібопекарському виробництві, де застосовується дозування декількох видів сировини, більш раціонально використовувати багатокомпонентні дозуючі пристрої.

Багатокомпонентне дозування може здійснюватися по наступним схемах:

  • послідовне дозування компонентів в одному загальному дозаторі;
  • рівнобіжне дозування кожного компонента в окремому спеціальному дозаторі (так названі дозуючі станції);
  • комбіноване дозування.

Вибір схеми дозування залежить від умов і розмірів виробництва. За структурою робочого циклу дозування буває безупинним і порційним (дискретним), а по способу дозування – об’ємним і ваговим.

Вагові способи дозування забезпечують високу точність, тому цей спосіб більш розповсюджений.

Об’ємний спосіб дозування конструктивно більш простий і тому більш надійний.

За рівнем автоматизації  дозатори розділяють:

  • с ручним керуванням;
  • напівавтоматичні;
  • автоматичні.

У дозаторі з ручним керуванням процес дозування виконує оператор.

В автоматичних і напівавтоматичних дозаторах частина роботи оператора виконується за допомогою механізмів (відлік числа порцій, подача матеріалу в дозатор та ін.).

Автоматичні дозатори можуть працювати як по розірваному так і по замкнутому циклах.

При розірваному циклі дозатори працюють як виконавчі механізми, що забезпечують видачу заданої кількості речовини незалежно від зміни його параметрів, регулювання може здійснюватися як вручну, так і дистанційно.

При роботі з замкнутого циклу подача речовини здійснюється по керуючим сигналам системи автоматичного регулювання, що стежить за ходом процесу.    

Серед об’ємних дозаторів для сипучих матеріалів виділяють (рисунок 25): барабанні, тарілчасті, шнекові, стрічкові, вібраційні, конвеєрні і роторні.

Рисунок 25 – Системи дозаторів об’ємного типу для сипучих компонентів:
а-шнековий: 1–бункер; 2 – дозуюча заслінка; 3–шнек; 4–корпус;
б-барабанний: 1–корпус; 2–бункер; 3– дозуюча заслінка; 4–барабан;
в-стрічковий: 1–бункер; 2– дозуюча заслінка; 3–стрічка;
г-тарілчастий: 1–бункер; 2–шкребок; 3–регулююча манжета; 4–тарілка;
д-вібраційний: 1–бункер; 2–регулююча заслінка; 3–гнучка опора.

Серед об’ємних дозаторів для рідких компонентів розрізняють (рисунок 26): дросельні, барабанні, поплавкові, ковшові, фіксованого рівня, електродні, стаканчикові, насоси-дозатори (шестеренні і поршневі).

Рисунок 26 – Схеми дозаторів об’ємного типу для рідких компонентів:
а) – дросельний: 1 – ємність; 2 – поплавець; 3 – трубка; 4 – дросель;
б) – барабанний: 1 – барабан; 2 – ємність; 3 – шкребок;
в) – поплавковий: 1 – поплавець;  2 – ємність; 3 – стрижень; 4 – контакт рухливий; 5 – контакт нерухомий; 6 – електромагнітний клапан; 7 – триходовий клапан;
г) – ковшовий: 1 – ківш; 2 – трубка;
д) – фіксованого  рівня: 1 – ємність; 2 – випускний клапан; 3 – впускний  клапан;  4 – бачок постійного рівня; 5 – регулююча трубка;
е) – електродний: 1 – ємність; 2,3 – електромагнітний клапан; 4 – електроди;
ж) – склянковий: 1 – обертова склянка; 2 – корпус; 3,4,5 – отвори;
з) – шестеренчастий: 1,2 – шестірні; 3 – корпус;
и) – поршневий: 1 – поршень; 2 – усмоктувальний клапан; 3 – нагнітальний клапан.

Вагові дозатори періодичної дії побудовані на використанні квадрантних чи важільних механізмів.

Спрощена класифікація дозаторів за структурою робочого циклу і конструктивних ознак виглядає таким чином (рисунок 27).

Рис. 27 Класифікація дозаторів


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