Передмова

Оброблення пшеничного тіста включає розподіл тіста на порції, округлення, попередню розстойку, формування тістових заготовок і остаточну розстойку.

Оброблення житнього тіста складається з таких етапів: розподіл тіста на порції, формування тістових заготовок, остаточна розстойка.

Відмінності в обробленні пшеничного і житнього тіста пов’язані з відмінностями в їхніх властивостях.

Операція розподілу тіста на порції повинна забезпечити одержання заданої маси хліба. Для наступних операцій технологічного процесу виготовлення хліба і булочних виробів приготоване тісто розділяють на шматки певної маси. Для ділення шматків тіста однакової маси від усієї кількості тіста або для розділення раніше звантажених шматків на декілька однакових порцій використовуються тістоділильні машини.

Цей вид технологічного обладнання поділяють на тістоділильні машини – вони виробляють шматки однакової маси; обладнання, що об’єднує виконання операції ділення і формування тістових заготовок – ділильно-формувальні машини (ділильно-округлюючі, ділильно-закатуючі та ін.) і обладнання, яке об’єднує виконання операції ділення і укладки тістових заготовок –ділильно-укладаючі машини.

Основні показники якості роботи тістоділильних машин є відповідність маси шматків тіста заданому параметру. Допустимі відхилення маси шматків тіста повинні бути для штучного хліба не більше ±2,5% від заданої маси шматків заданої партії.

Основним показником, що забезпечує точну роботу тістоділильних машин є постійний об‘єм шматка і ступінь його стислості. Ступінь стислості тіста спочатку до тиску 0,1 МПа, збільшується швидко, потім зменшується.

Процес округлення тістових заготовок необхідний для надання їм кулястої форми. Округлення необхідне для згладжування кутів на їх поверхні і створення плівки, що перешкоджає виходу газів з тіста в процесі попередньої розстойки.

Відміряні на ділильних машинах заготовки тіста, здебільшого безформні і мають певну пористу поверхню.

Для обробки шматка тіста шароподібної форми застосовуються тісто-формувальні машини. Машини, що застосовуються для формування, надають шматкам тіста, кулеподібної , циліндричної чи спеціальної форми. Надання шматкам тіста кулеподібної форми виконується округлювальними машинами, циліндричної – закаточними машинами, і спеціальної форми – спеціальними формуючими машинами.

Операція округлювання при випіканні круглих подових виробів здійснюється відразу після поділу тіста на шматки і являється операцією остаточного формування шматків тіста.

При виробництві багатьох видів виробів з сортової пшеничної борошна вищого, першого і другого сортів округлення являється лише першою проміжною стадією формування виробу. За нею іде попередня розстійка, і остаточне формування шматків тіста з пшеничної борошна на закаточних чи спеціальних формувальних машинах. Всі тістоформуючі машини в залежності від способу надання форми шматам тіста діляться на чотири групи:

  • машини для формування заготовок тіста, методом прокатування, до яких відносяться округлювальні, закаточні, рогаликові пристрої.
  • машини для формування тістових заготовок методом шматування, до яких відносяться більшість спеціальних формуючих пристроїв для виробництва дрібно штучних булочних виробів;
  • машини для формування тістових заготовок методом екструзії, до яких відносяться спеціальні формуючі пристрої для виробництва пончиків, пиріжків, соломки, хлібних паличок ;
  • машини комбіновані, що містять в собі прокатуючі, штампуючі і інші спеціальні формуючі пристрої.

Найбільше поширення мають машини першої групи. В цих машинах тістові заготовки звичайно піддаються впливу з боку двох поверхонь робочих органів машини. Поверхня, яка забезпечує переміщення тістової заготовки, називається несучою, а поверхня, що надає заготовці певної форми в результаті зміни напрямку її руху – формуючою.

В залежності від форми, якої надає машина тістовій заготовці, машини діляться на округлюючі, що формують шароподібні заготовки, і закаточні , що формують видовжені циліндричні чи еліпсоїдні заготовки.

Формування в цих машинах являється результатом дії на шматок тіста трьох сил: сили, що обумовлює переміщення (перекочування) шматка тіста на будь-якій поверхні при наявності опору тертя (несуча поверхня), сили опору тертя при переміщенні шматка тіста по поверхні, що діє в напрямку, протилежному руху (поверхня тертя) і сили, що обумовлює зміну форми шматка тіста, і тиску, необхідного для забезпечення достатнього тертя між куском тіста і поверхнями, між якими він переміщується.

Обробка тістової заготовки в процесі прокатки здійснюється в незамкненому об’ємі так, що в любий момент найбільш інтенсивної обробки піддається частина заготовки, яка безпосередньо стикається з оброблюючими робочими поверхнями машин – несучою і тертя.

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