8. Боротьба з прилипанням тіста в тістоформуючих машинах

Однією з основних умов працездатності тістоформуючих машин є відсутність прилипання, розмазування тістових заготовок об робочі органи цих машин (адгезія).

Недооцінка цього явища призводить до того, що добра конструкція  і виконання тістоокруглювача чи закатки не забезпечує доброї роботи машини.

Щоб уникнути прилипання до поверхонь робочих органів тістооброблюваних машин шматки пшеничного тіста при оброблюванні звичайно опилюються борошном, тому ці машини, як правило, забезпечуються борошнопосипачами. Для опилення використовується борошно тих же сортів, з яких приготовлене тісто. На підсипку використовують 1,5% борошна від загальної витрати її на приготування виробів. Це борошно значною мірою вводить у втрати виробництва, що істотно збільшує непродуктивні витрати.

Для боротьби з адгезією більш ефективними способами необхідно вивчити ці явища і навчитись керувати ними.

В останні роки застосовуються наступні заходи по обробці пшеничного тіста, при яких борошно на обпилювання не використовується: обробка робочих поверхонь тістообробних машин синтетичними смолами, використання фторопласта, тефлону і інших водовідштовхуючих матеріалів, застосування сітчастих конвеєрів з масляними ваннами для переміщення шматків тіста від однієї машини до іншої, використання суміші, що скорочує витрати борона і покращує якість виробів; застосування для опилення крохмалю; обдування підігрітим повітрям робочих поверхонь тістообробних машин.

Для боротьби з адгезією в тістоокруглюваних машинах застосовують змазування поверхонь тертя маслом, обдування гарячим або холодним повітрям, покриття робочих поверхонь спеціальними матеріалами, що володіють водовідштовхуючими властивостями, покриття кремнійорганічними речовинами, парафінування, спеціальні сплави і матеріали для виготовлення робочих органів машин та інші.

В кожній тістоокруглювальній машині виходячи з її конструктивних і технологічних особливостей застосовується той чи інший спосіб боротьби з адгезією. Однак найбільш прийнятним в тістоформуючих машинах, частково в тістоокруглювальних машинах, являється обдування підігрітим повітрям робочих поверхонь машини і тістових заготовок.

Повітря для обдування шматків тіста забирається безпосередньо з верхньої зони приміщення і нагнітається відцентровим вентилятором в повітропровід діаметром приблизно 350 мм, звідки по відводах діаметром звичайно 100-200 мм повітря поступає до ділильної, округлювальної і закаточної машин.

Всі повітропроводи виготовляють з листової покрівельної сталі. Закінчуються вони насадками (соплами). Насадки слід розміщувати таким чином, щоб в потоці підсушувались і робочі органи машини, і поверхня оброблюваної тістової заготовки.

Для регулювання кількості повітря, що подається до окремих машин, на трубопроводах є шибери. Температура повітря, що поступає на обдування коливається 28-30 0С, а відносна вологість його становить 40-43 %. Для зменшення прилипання тіста до робочих органів зменшують поверхневу вологу тіста і при короткочасних контактах покривають робочі органи машини фторопластом-4. Валки закатуючих машин мають короткочасний контакт з тістом, тому їх слід покривати фторопластом-4, а поверхню тіста підсушувати обдуванням повітрям.

Слід мати на увазі, що при інтенсивній обробці тіста шар фторплас-та-4 на робочих органах (валках) стирається. Досвід експлуатації закаточних машин марок ХТЗ-1 показує, що валки покриті вторин-ним фторопластом-4, виходять з ладу через 6-8 місяців роботи. Проте слід відмітити, що застосування первинного фторопласта для облицю-вання валків тістозакаточних машин Т1-ХТ2-3 і Т1-ХТ2-3-1 різко (в 3-4 рази) підвищило термін їх служби.

На деяких хлібозаводах валки закаточних машин виконані з мармуру і працюють добре.

Застосовується також покриття конвеєрних стрічок кремнійорганічною рідиною ГКЖ-94, кремнійорганічним лаком марки К-58, деталей машин фторопластовим лаком, емульсією, просочування їх парафіном і т.п. з обдуванням їх повітрям.

Останнім часом промисловість почала випускати спеціальні стрічки з поліетиленовим, фторопластовим і іншими видами покриттів, а також гумові стрічки з маслостійкої гуми. Всі ці заходи в певній мірі сприяють боротьбі з прилипанням тіста до робочих органів машин.

Проте найбільш ефективним і поширеним в виробництві способом боротьби з адгезією являється обдування робочих органів тістоформу-ючих машин і поверхонь тістових заготовок підігрітим повітрям, але робочі органи попередньо обробляються кремнійорганічними сполу-ками або покриваються фторопластом-4 чи лаком на їх на основі.

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