4 Органолептичні показники молока

Свіже сире молоко характеризується певними органолептичними або сенсорними показниками: зовнішнім виглядом, консистенцією, кольором, смаком і запахом.

Згідно з нормативною документацією молоко повинно бути однорідною рідиною без осаду і пластівців, від білого до слабо-кремового кольору, без сторонніх, невластивих йому присмаків і запахів.

Білий колір і непрозорість молока обумовлює розсіювання світла колоїдними частинками білків і кульок жиру, кремовий відтінок — розчинений у жирі каротин, приємний, солодкувато-солонуватий смак — лактоза, хлориди, жирні кислоти, а також жир і білки. Жир надає молоку певну ніжність, лактоза — солодкуватий смак, хлориди — солонуватий, білки і деякі солі —— повноту смаку.

До числа ароматичних і смакових речовин сирого молока можна віднести невелику кількість диметилсульфіду (<0,01 мг%) і метилсульфіду (<0,001 мг%), ацетону(<2 мг%), диацетилу (<0,1 мг%), вільних жирних кислот (до 10 мг%), у тому числі летких жирних кислот (до 5 мг%), а також незначна кількість ацетальдегіду та інших монокарбонільних сполук, карбонових кислот (піровиноградної і молочної), аміносполук (вільних амінокислот, пептидів, амінів, аміаку).

Підвищення вмісту в молоці хлоридів, перерахованих вище і деяких інших летких речовин призводить, як правило, до зміни нормального смаку і запаху молока і виникнення вад. Причини та строки їх виникнення різноманітні. Так, ряд вад смаку і запаху може з’явитися в молоці перед доїнням. До них відносяться вади, викликані зміною хімічного складу молока при порушенні фізіологічних процесів в організмі тварини і надходженням в молочну залозу з кров‘ю речовин корму, що мають специфічний смак і запах. Наприклад, яскраво виражені присмаки (гіркий, солоний) мають молозиво, стародійне молоко та молоко, отримане від тварин, хворих маститом, кетозом та іншими захворюваннями.

Інші вади смаку і запаху можуть з’явитися в молоці після доїння — при порушенні правил зберігання, транспортування та первинної обробки молока. Прогірклий, окислений, мильний та інші присмаки і сторонні запахи молока викликаються ліполізом та окисленням жиру. Різноманітні вади обумовлюються адсорбцією запахів погано вимитої тари, невентильовані приміщення, випари мастильних олив, бензину і т. д., також забрудненням молока мийними і дезинфікуючими засобами, ліками, пестицидами.

Таким чином, на смак і запах сирого молока впливають численні фактори — стан здоров’я, порода і умови утримання тварин, раціон годівлі, стадія лактації, тривалість і умови зберігання молока, режими первинної обробки.

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