1. Класифікація способів засолювання м’ясопродуктів

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Під час засолювання у м’ясі накопичуються засолювальні речовини (хлорид натрію, нітрит натрію, цукор та ін.), від кількості яких залежать його смак, аромат, колір, а також стійкість до дії мікроорганізмів. Засолювання роблять при порівняно низьких температурах (не вище ніж 4 °С).

У м’ясній промисловості засолювання застосовують при обробці шкур, виробництві ковбасних, кулінарних, копчених, солоних і консервованих продуктів.

М’ясо солять сухим, мокрим і змішаним способами. При сухому засолюванні м’ясопродукти натирають сіллю або засолювальною сумішшю й укладають у тару  чи штабелі, пересипаючи щоразу сіллю.

При мокрому засолюванні м’ясопродукти укладають у чани або бочки і заливають розсолом. Для прискорення проникнення засолювальних компонентів частину розсолу вводять у товщу продукту шприцюванням.

Змішане засолювання застосовують при виробництві свинокопченостей і солонини. Продукти шприцюють розсолом, потім натирають засолювальною сумішшю й укладають у тару до утворення маткового розсолу, після чого їх заливають свіжим розсолом.

Вибір обладнання для засолювання м’яса визначається технологією м’ясопродуктів. При виробництві ковбасних виробів м’ясо попередньо подрібнюють і змішують із засолювальними компонентами в  мішалці чи куттері.

Засолювання м’яса при виробництві ковбасних виробів здійснюється також у засолювальних агрегатах.

Для витримки м’яса при засолюванні застосовують різні ємності – тази, чани, підвісні ковші, бункери, стелажі  та ін.

Для прискорення процесу засолювання м’яса в його м’язову тканину вводять під тиском розсіл. Для цього застосовують засолювальні шприци, агрегати та багатоголчасті  машини.

Для інтенсифікації процесу дозрівання м’яса при засолюванні цей процес супроводжують механічним обробленням м’яса (масуванням і тумблюванням).

Масування – це тертя шматків м’яса один об одний і об внутрішні стінки апарата.

Тумблювання – спосіб механічного оброблення, при якому використовують енергію падіння шматків м’яса з деякої висоти, енергію ударів їх один об один, виступи і стінки обертового апарата.

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